Printed perovskite and transparent solar cells

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e are focused on perovskite-based solar printing equipment. These are batteries with the best ratio of efficiency to weight. Now the efficiency is about 17%, and the minimum thickness is 10 microns.

We can automate the process of producing a solar cell using the semblance of printing elements. Reagents and substrates are loaded onto which layers of solar cells are applied. We create a laboratory model, which at the very beginning of development gives the final product. In this case, the need for staff can be minimized. All this significantly reduces costs, which can bring the cost price to $ 0.3 per watt.An efficiency of about 17% has been achieved, calculations show that it is possible to exceed 30% in the future.

Solar panels can be printed on a variety of substrates, including on a curved surface. On flexible substrates it can be a hat or a backpack with built-in solar cells. Perovskite material with an efficiency of 20% and a lifetime of about 4 years. In the future, we plan to obtain an efficiency of 25% of perovskite batteries. Now on the market are backpacks with battery efficiency of about 10%The cost price of 400 dollars is already sunny clothes like jackets, vests.For the manufacture of 1 square meter you need from 10 to 20 USD. It takes about a year and a half and about 600-900 thousand USD to go into industrial production. We need to increase the guaranteed period of work to 8-9 years and repeatable efficiency from 14 to 18% over a large area and prevent production defects. In some experiments, my efficiency was up to 21%.

It seems to me that for the very beginning of entering the market, it is worth making printed on clothes, backpacks, awnings solar batteries for recharging mobile devices, since flexible batteries with efficiency of more than 10% (Fujifilm (JP), Unisolar (US). Miasole (US ), Flisom (CH), MidSummer (SE) have not yet entered the market and have not yet responded to my price requests. At the same time, they are 2-4 times more expensive in finished products. In this case, for efficiency gains of 1.5 times the user is ready to overpay by 2-3 times. In countries with frequent power outages energy and incomplete electricity coverage will be in demand, since almost everyone has mobile phones there, but not all have sockets. If you sell a square meter for 200 USD, that’s about 140-160 W, then for a full return on investment you need to produce 5000
8,000 square meters (assuming that each square measures 20-25 USD). This is approximately 2-2.5 years after the start of investment

We have developed a way to print windows with built-in solar panels. Solar light is 53% composed of infrared light, which we do not see, but feel like heat. This infrared light is separated from visible light when it enters the window and is directed to solar panels, located as blinds inside the window. Visible light passes inside. The optical system practically does not distort light, distortions can be minimized

In this case, an optical system is used to divide and redirect infrared light and solar cells with enhanced absorption in the IR region.Measurements of power versus angle were also carried out, at angles of about 20 degrees the power drops by 15% The conversion efficiency of infrared light is 11%, it can be increased to 16-17%. This is about 110 watts per square meter of double-glazed windows. Transparency for visible light is 90.5% perpendicular, and about 78% at an angle of 45-60 degrees, the window changes its color from blue to burgundy at an angle. You can make a drawing that will not be visible at small viewing angles to the window, but visible on reflection when looking obliquely at the glass. In the future, we plan to increase transparency for visible light.If we take the area of Burj El Khalifa, an area of 334,000 m², then, considering that on average only half the building, then 110x334000 / 2, there will be 18.37 MW, and for the light day there will be 367.400 kWh.The peak consumption of the tower is 30-50 MW, that is, the window can provide up to 50% of the energy of the glass building.The usual cost of a solar battery is about 80-100 dollars per square meter, about the same cost have energy-saving windowsThere are developments of a similar orientation, it is possible to mention translucent batteries based on dyes (due to sensitized solar cells), brown, red, yellow and green colors that can be used similar stained glass windows. They assembled a group of Michael Gratzel from the Lausanne Polytechnic School. The efficiency of such batteries is about 5-7%. They absorb a part of the visible light, and the other part is passed. In this case, the infrared part is captured only partiallyThere are also solar cells on quantum dots that absorb mainly the infrared part of the light, but the efficiency of such batteries is only about 3-4%.Also, there are batteries based on phosphors, where the light falls on the phosphor and is re-emitted to solar batteries along the perimeter of the window. The efficiency of such systems also does not exceed 3-5%.Also there were windows where the lens is built, but they distort the visible picture.It should be noted the Spanish Onyx Solar and American ubiquitous energy. Ubiquitous Energy states that its UV-absorbing solar panels are 3% of the total energy of light and infrared, 53% of sunlight, can have an efficiency of up to 10% and transparency for visible light of about 90%. Specific values of efficiency can not be found, but in the latest publication, where a 150 nm thick titanium oxide oxide (ITO) oxide is used. Then 20 nm of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), 15 nm of chloraluminium phthalocyanine (ClAlPc), 30 nm of Buckminsterfullerene (C60), 7.5 nm of batocuproine (BCP) and 100 nm of Ag cathode are added via thermal evaporation. The efficiency was about 2.5%.Thus, the market now does not have solar panels for windows with acceptable conversion efficiency and minimally disruptive windows function.



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